We formally verify an abstract machine for a call-by-value lambda-calculus with de Bruijn terms, simple substitution, and small-step semantics. We follow a stepwise refinement approach starting with a naive stack machine with substitution. We then refine to a machine with closures, and finally to a machine with a heap providing structure sharing for closures. We prove the correctness of the three refinement steps with compositional small-step bottom-up simulations. There is an accompanying Coq development verifying all results.
Link to Coq Formalisation - Preliminary version at arXiv
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